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Female Sterilization 

Female sterilization provides permanent contraception for women who do not want more children. It is a safe and
 simple surgical procedure and can usually be done with local anesthesia and light sedation.

A small incision is made by the doctor in the womanís abdomen and the two fallopian tubes are blocked off or cut. These tubes carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. With the tubes blocked, the womanís egg cannot meet the manís sperm.

The effectiveness of this method depends partially on how the tubes are blocked, but all pregnancy rates are low. Only 0.5 pregnancies per 100 women (1 in 200) have been recorded in the first year after the procedure. Within 10 years, this figure increases to 1.8 pregnancies per 100 women (1 in 55).

Postpartum tubal litigation (immediately after the childbirth) is one of the most effective female sterilization techniques. In the first year after the procedure only, 0.05 pregnancies per 100 women (1in 2000) has been recorded.


1. Very effective. 
2. It is permanent. A single procedure leads to lifelong, safe and very
effective family planning. 
3. Nothing to remember, no supplies needed and no repeated clinic
visits required. 
4. No interference with sex. Does not affect a womanís ability to have
5. No known long-term side effects or health risks. 


It is usually painful for several days after the operation. Certain uncommon complications of the surgery can occur:  
Infection or bleeding at the incision  
--Internal infection or bleeding  
--Injury to internal organs 


Anesthetic risk: With local anesthesia alone or with sedation, rare risks of allergic reaction or overdose. With general anesthesia, occasional delayed recovery and side effects. Complications are more severe than with local anesthesia. There is also a risk of overdose. 

Reversal surgery is difficult, expensive and not available in most areas. Successful reversal too is not guaranteed. Women who may want to become pregnant in the future should choose a different method.

The right time to undergo Female Sterilization

A woman can have female sterilization procedure anytime that: 

She decides that she will never want children in future. 

It is reasonably certain that she is not pregnant. These times can include: 

---Immediately after childbirth or within 7days, if she has made a voluntary informed choice in advance;

--- Six weeks or more after childbirth; or 

--- Immediately after abortion (within 48 hours), if she has not decided voluntarily in advance; and

--- Any other, but NOT between 7 days and 6 weeks postpartum.

Important points to remember 

1. Permanent family planning method. 
2. A woman must think carefully and decide she will never want any more children, before she makes the choice. 
3. It is very effective and involves a safe and simple surgery. 

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