India is the largest producer ,exporter and
consumer of spices in the world. India is home to
more than 50 varieties of species in its fifteen
agro climatic zones from the tropical to the
temperate. The total production of spices in india
is estimated at 2.7 million tonnes. India exports
0.25 million tonnes of spices to over 150
countries accounting for over 45% of the world
spice trade by volume and value.
Pepper is one of the oldest and best-known spices
in the world. Indigenous to India pepper is
popularly known as the King of Spices. From time
immemorial, India has always reigned supreme in
the production & export of this most exotic and
renowned spice in the world.
Pepper plant is a perennial climber with dark
green leaves and spikes of white flowers. The
peppercorn is a berry like drupe, about ½ cm in
diameter, green when unripe and then red. Black
pepper comes from whole fruit, picked just before
they are completely ripe and dried.
Chili was introduced in India by
the great Portuguese explorer Vasco-da-Gama. The
spice chilli blended well in Indian cooking.
Chilli became extremely popular in India. The
climate in India was favorable to cultivate
chillies and soon many varieties of chilli were
available in India. Places like Andhra Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Kashmir became famous for
different varieties in chilli. The highly pungent
"Sannam" & the mildly pungent 'mundu' chilies are
internationally popular varieties. India also
offers 'gospurea chilli’. Byadgi chillis are known
for its high color value.
Turmeric, the dried
rhizome of a herbaceous perennial, is indigenous
to Southeast Asia. The primary rhizomes, round in
shape are called 'bulbs', while the thin, long
secondary rhizomes are 'fingers'.
Plant organs as spices:
||Mace of nutmeg
||Allspice, black pepper, chilli
part of flower)
||Basil, bay leaf, mint, marjoram, sage,
|Latex from rhizome
||Ajowan, aniseed, caraway, celery,
coriander, dill, fennel,fenugreek, mustard,