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Milk Products

Unfermented Products:
Skimmed milk is deficient in fats and fat soluble vitamins but the protein, sugar, minerals and vitamin B factors (except pyrodoxine) are well preserved. If skimmed milk powder is supplemented with vitamin A, D and pyridoxine, it is a comparatively cheap food of high nutritive value. It is useful for the treatment of malnutrition, the nephrotic syndrome and the cirrhosis of liver. The addition of about 6 tablespoons of skimmed milk powder during the preparation of chapatis, custard, curd, etc will supply an additional 35 gms of protein.

Toned milk This is prepared by mixing equal parts of fresh buffalo milk (rich in fats) and reconstituted skimmed milk powder. The fat, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin and mineral contents - and thus the nutritive value - are the same as fresh cow's milk. It is a useful source of proteins for malnourished children and pregnant women. 

Double toned milk contains only 1.5% fat. 
 
Malai (Clotted cream) After milk is boiled and allowed to cool, a thick layer of fat and coagulated proteins collects at the surface and can be skimmed off; by repeating the process twice, most of the fat is removed. Buffalo's milk, being rich in fat produces better malai. Good malai supplies 43 kcal (181 kJ) per tablespoon.

Khoa (Mava) is milk in which the water content is reduced to between 20% and 25%. It is prepared by vigorously boiling milk, and stirring it continuously to avoid burning at the bottom or overflowing at the top. When cooled, khoa forms a uniform mass, containing fats, heat-coagulated proteins and lactose. Khoa supplies 82 kcal (344 KJ) per tablespoon

Chhana (cottage cheese) is prepared by adding lemon juice to boiling milk; this precipitates casein, lactalbumin and fat. The liquid part (whey) is strained through a cloth and chhana is collected.

Whey is a byproduct of butter and cheese production and is frequently discarded. However, when dried it can be preserved, and forms a good source of nutrition in poorer countries.

Composition per 100 gms

Product Protein(%) Fat(%) Carbohydrate(%)  Energy (kcal)
Malai (Clotted cream) 3.5 30 3.8 300
Khoa (Mava) 24 41 28 580
Chhana (Cottage cheese) 15 22 5 280
Whey (liquid) 1 0.3 5 50
Whey (dried) 11 1 73 350
Double toned milk - 1.5 - -

Fermented Products:
Dahi (Curd)
  The mode of preparation of dahi varies considerably, as does its flavour. The flavour depends upon the type of lactic acid organisms predominant in the starter. It has same calorie value as that of milk from which it has been prepared.

Yoghurt is the name given to milk cuddled by a specific type of lactic acid bacillus called Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

Lassi (Butter milk) When dahi is churned with water and fat is removed, the residual acid buttermilk is called lassi. Dahi and lassi can be prepared  from whole or skimmed milk.

Ghee (Clarified butter: Butter-fat) The composition of cow and buffalo ghee is similar: 99% fat, mostly saturated; about 1114 microgms (3800 iu) vitamin A per 100 gms, varying with cattle feed and the freshness; and about 30 microgms ( 99 iu) vitamin D per 100 gms, varying with the exposure of cattle to the sunshine. Ghee contains practically no calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B, or vitamin C. Ghee contains cholesterol oxide (which is not found in butter), which is suspected to produce thickening of arteries (Atherosclerosis) leading to heart disease.

Cheese Cottage cheese is an unfermented milk product, but cheese produced commercially in the west is a fermented product. There are over 400 varieties of cheese.
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