Typhoid fever is the result of systemic infection
mainly by the bacteria S. typhi found only in man. The disease is
clinically characterized by a typical continuous fever for 3-4
weeks. The primary sources of infection are feces and urine of
cases or carriers.
The control or elimination of typhoid fever is well within the
scope of modern public health.
There are generally three lines of
1. Control of reservoir that is their identification, isolation,
treatment and disinfection.
2. Control of sanitation.
With the provision of proper medication to treat the symptoms and
disease, diet management in addition may be helpful in faster and
GUIDELINES FOR DIETARY TREATMENT
- High calorie diet is prescribed to maintain the weight or to
gain weight. Caloric requirement may be as high as 2500-3000 Kcal
- Daily requirement of protein ranges from 80-120 gms to make up
for tissue wasting. Good quality proteins like egg and milk should
- Minerals especially calcium, iron and phosphorus is to be
provided liberally as they help in regeneration of cells, blood
and body fluids.
- Diet must be planned judiciously to provide good dose of
vitamins especially vitamin A and vitamin C as these are essential
for the regenerative purpose.
- High fluid and soft diet in small frequency is recommended.
- Food must be appetizing and made after considering the likes and
dislikes of the patient.
- Fatty, highly fibrous and very spicy foods should be avoided as
they are hard to digest.
A DAYS SAMPLE DIET PLAN FOR A TYPHOID PATIENT
|Mohit, aged 10 years, is a son of a
government servant. He was running high fever which was diagnosed
as typhoid and subsequently treated with antibiotic therapy. Now
his fever is under control and there is also improvement in his
appetite. A days diet for him is planned below
from typhoid fever
||600 µg retinol
pulse & Spinach khichri
vegetables & pulses
DO YOU KNOW ?
Fever leads to:
There is a loss of
tissue protein which may amount to as much as 250 to 500 grams of
muscle tissue a day.
Body stores of glycogen
are quickly depleted and water electrolyte balance is
The intestinal tract is
highly inflamed and irritable and diarrhoea, is therefore a frequent
complication which interferes with the absorption of nutrients.
Ulceration in intestines
may be so severe that hemorrhage and even
perforation of intestines
Extensive changes in
liver with complicated diseases of the gall bladder and bile passages
*Plenty of juices, soups,
beverages and plain water (2.5 to 5liters desirable)
Milk and milk based
*Low fiber foods such as
refined cereals and their products, de husked pulses, well cooked
fruits, vegetables in soft and puree form and potatoes.
*Foods providing proteins
of high biologic value e.g. eggs, soft cheeses, tender meats, fish,
Plain gelatin based
desserts, sugars, honey and jams.
Due to the presence of
diarrhea, fats only in emulsified form like cream, butter, whole
milk, egg yolk should be eaten as they are easily digested and well
tolerated by the patient.
In order to compensate
for the losses through the skin and sweat and also for ensuring
adequate volume of urine for excreting waste, a liberal intake of
fluids is very essential.
TREATMENT of typhoid
Rest in bed
Keeping the patient warm