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Typhoid
Typhoid fever is the result of systemic infection mainly by the bacteria S. typhi found only in man. The disease is clinically characterized by a typical continuous fever for 3-4 weeks. The primary sources of infection are feces and urine of cases or carriers.


The control or elimination of typhoid fever is well within the scope of modern public health.

There are generally three lines of defense:

1. Control of reservoir that is their identification, isolation, treatment and disinfection.
2. Control of sanitation.
3. Immunization

With the provision of proper medication to treat the symptoms and disease, diet management in addition may be helpful in faster and better recovery.

GUIDELINES FOR DIETARY TREATMENT
  • High calorie diet is prescribed to maintain the weight or to gain weight. Caloric requirement may be as high as 2500-3000 Kcal per day.


  • Daily requirement of protein ranges from 80-120 gms to make up for tissue wasting. Good quality proteins like egg and milk should be incorporated.


  • Minerals especially calcium, iron and phosphorus is to be provided liberally as they help in regeneration of cells, blood and body fluids.


  • Diet must be planned judiciously to provide good dose of vitamins especially vitamin A and vitamin C as these are essential for the regenerative purpose.


  • High fluid and soft diet in small frequency is recommended.


  • Food must be appetizing and made after considering the likes and dislikes of the patient.


  • Fatty, highly fibrous and very spicy foods should be avoided as they are hard to digest.

A DAYS SAMPLE DIET PLAN FOR A TYPHOID PATIENT
Mohit, aged 10 years, is a son of a government servant. He was running high fever which was diagnosed as typhoid and subsequently treated with antibiotic therapy. Now his fever is under control and there is also improvement in his appetite. A days diet for him is planned below

Personal data
 

Age 10 years
Sex  Male
Physical Activity Bed Rest
Socio economic status MIG
Food habits Non - vegetarian
Physiological condition Recovering from typhoid fever

 Recommended dietary allowances

Energy 2420 kcal
Protein 81 grams
Vitamin A  600 g retinol
Vitamin C 40 mg

Food Plan

Meal Menu
Early morning Milk biscuits
Breakfast Suji porridge
Boiled eggs
Mid morning Paneer sandwiches
Lunch Tomato soup
Washed mung pulse & Spinach khichri
Potato raita
Tea time  Ice cream
Dinner Mixed vegetables & pulses
Chicken noodles
Stewed apple with custard
DO YOU KNOW ? 
Typhoid Fever leads to:
* There is a loss of tissue protein which may amount to as much as 250 to 500 grams of muscle tissue a day.
* Body stores of glycogen are quickly depleted and water electrolyte balance  is disturbed. 
* The intestinal tract is highly inflamed and irritable and diarrhoea, is therefore a frequent complication which interferes with the absorption of nutrients.
* Ulceration in intestines may be so severe that hemorrhage and even
 perforation of intestines may occur
* Extensive changes in liver with complicated diseases of the gall bladder and bile passages may occur
 
Foods recommended
*Plenty of juices, soups, beverages and plain water (2.5 to 5liters desirable)
* Milk and milk based beverages
*Low fiber foods such as refined cereals and their products, de husked pulses, well cooked fruits, vegetables in soft and puree form and potatoes.
*Foods providing proteins of high biologic value e.g. eggs, soft cheeses, tender meats, fish, poultry etc.
* Plain gelatin based desserts, sugars, honey and jams.  
 
BEWARE
*
Due to the presence of diarrhea, fats only in emulsified form like cream, butter, whole milk, egg yolk should be eaten as they are easily digested and well tolerated by the patient.

*
In order to compensate for the losses through the skin and sweat and also for ensuring adequate volume of urine for excreting waste, a liberal intake of fluids is very essential.

TREATMENT of typhoid
Rest in bed
Keeping the patient warm

Antibiotic therapy
Modified diets
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