It is claimed that
milk and cheese if taken with food rich in oxalates, lead to the
precipitation of non absorbable calcium oxalate in the intestines
KIDNEY STONES (Urolithiasis)
Renal stone consists of
mucopoly saccharides, urates, calcium oxalate, calcium
phosphate and calcium carbonate. Urate and oxalate stones are
most common. Cystine stones are very rare
stones are solid concretions or crystal aggregations formed in
the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. Kidney stones
typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and
many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If
stones grow to sufficient size before passage (usually at least
2–3 millimeters), then they can cause obstruction of the ureter.
The resulting obstruction causes dilation or stretching of the
upper ureter and renal pelvis (the part of the kidney where the
urine collects before entering the ureter) as well as spasm of
the ureter, trying to move the stone. This leads to pain, most
commonly felt in the flank, lower abdomen and groin.
The diagnosis of a kidney stone can be confirmed by radiological
studies and/or ultrasound examination; urine tests and blood
tests are also commonly performed.
DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES
Preventive strategies may include dietary modifications
and medication with the goal of reducing excretory load
on the kidneys.
Drinking enough water to make 2 to 2.5 liters of urine
per day. A failure to intake sufficient liquids will mean
the urine is concentrated and the substances that create
kidney stones are more likely to clump together.
Diet should be low in protein, as a diet high in protein
may lead to kidney stones because extra protein causes
calcium to be excreted from the body, raising calcium
levels in the urine.
Prevention strategies include restriction of oxalate-rich
foods, or consumption of more calcium.
Some fruit juices, such as orange, blackcurrant, and
cranberry, may be useful for lowering the risk factors
for specific types of stones. Orange juice may help
prevent calcium oxalate stone formation, blackcurrant may
help prevent uric acid stones, and cranberry may help
with UTI-caused stones.
Grapefruit juice and dark colas have been found to
increase the risk of stone formation and should be
avoided by people who are prone to calcium oxalate stone
Salt is made up of sodium and chloride. The sodium in
salt, when excreted by the kidneys, causes more calcium
to be excreted into the urine. High concentrations of
calcium in the urine combine with oxalate and phosphorus
to form stones. Reducing salt intake is preferred to
reducing calcium intake.
Meats and other animal protein contain purine, which break
down into uric acid in the urine. People who form uric acid
stones should limit their meat consumption.
Calcium from food does not increase the risk of calcium
oxalate stones. Calcium in the digestive tract binds to
oxalate from food and keeps it from entering the blood,
and then the urinary tract, where it can form stones.
People who form calcium oxalate stones should include 800
mg of calcium in their diet every day, not only for
kidney stone prevention but also to maintain bone
density. A cup of low-fat milk contains 300 mg of
calcium. Other dairy products such as yogurt are also
high in calcium.
DO YOU KNOW-
Factors that make up your kidney
||Climate In warm
climates, the urine volume is low and the urine is highly
concentrated with urates, oxalates and calcium salts
Individuals who have to work in the direct sun and who perspire a
lot may generally pass concentrated urine
||Infection of the urinary
tract may be one of the contributory causes
Persons consuming habitually foods rich in oxalates, calcium,
purines and phosphates, e.g.
- whole cereal flours
(rich in phosphates)
- Leafy vegetables (rich in
calcium and oxalates)
- Milk (rich in calcium
- Tea (rich in oxalates)
- Meat (rich in purine and
may be predisposed to the formation of renal calculi.
metabolism of uric acid and oxalates may be of hereditary origin
DO YOU KNOW-
Principles of treatment
Liberal fluid intake;
Ingestion of large amount of fluid in the form of beverages such as
tender coconut, barley water, fruit juices and other soft drinks will
help the patient to excrete over 2 litres of urine per day. A dilute
urine prevents concentration of solids and the precipitation of
crystals of urate and oxalates
Modification of the diet
to prevent calculus formation
If you have a history
of stone formation in a blood relation or have had a stone
earlier take the following measures to diminish the chances of stone
Adequate fluid intake,
ensuring 2 liters of urine daily
Treat urinary infection
calcium; restrict intake to less than 600 mg by decreasing intake of
absorption. Sodium cellulose phosphate, 5 g three times a day with
meals, binds intestinal calcium and prevents calcium absorption
Restrict protein intake
to 60 to 70 g daily
Urinary bladder stone is
reduced by increasing phosphate excretion with pumpkin seeds, 60 mg
per kg of bodyweight